The Sakha Republic is a democratic constitutional state within the Russian Federation. The Declaration of the Sovereignty of the Republic was accepted on September 27th, 1990, followed by the Federative Treaty with the Russian Federation and the treaty on the division of authority and power between the federal bodies of the Russian Federation and the bodies of state power in the Sakha Republic. This new status as a Republic gave Yakutia an independent way to deal with vital questions regarding its development.
The state authorities of the Sakha Republic are part of the state system of the Russian Federation. The relations between the two are based on the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, the Federative Treaty and the treaty on the division of authority and power between the federal bodies of the Russian Federation and the state bodies in the Sakha Republic.
The Republic has its own constitution. The present constitution was adopted on April 27th, 1992.
State power in Yakutia is under the control of the president, the State Assembly, and the Constitutional and Supreme Courts. Local administration is represented by the local governments of the regions.
The president, who is the head of the executive power in the republic, is nominated by the President of the Russian Federation and is approved by the State Assembly. He represents the republic within the Russian Federation and also to foreign countries. He nominates the vice-president as well as Chair of the Government and the government ministers for approval by the State Assembly. The government meets the president to inform him about general government business at regular meetings.
The legislative body of the republic is the State Assembly, which is known in the Sakha language as II Tumen. It can set the state budget, pass laws, amend legislation, and adopt a constitution. Its members are called deputies. Each one is elected by a constituency and represents that constituency for a term of five years. They are organised into various committees to decide on strategies for governmental affairs.
The legal system is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the city courts, and the Supreme Court of Arbitration. The Constitutional Court of the Sakha Republic was formed in 1992. It interprets the Republic's constitution and examines the actions of the president and of the State Assembly, as well as the actions of local administrations, to make sure they are acting according to the constitution. The Supreme Court implements civil and criminal law. The Supreme Court of Arbitration considers the legal issues in economic and business cases.
According to the Constitution of the Sakha Republic, which officially confirms it as a democratic legal state, the republic has its own state symbols: a flag, an emblem, and an anthem. The description of the republic's state emblem and national flag is written in Article 140 of the Sakha Republic Constitution of 1992.
The state emblem was adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic (forerunner of II Tumen) on December 26th, 1992. The state emblem of the republic is a circle with a picture of a rider on a horse from an old Lena River rock carving in the centre. The ancient carving comes from the republic's Sakha forebears, who were horsemen and cattle breeders. More than a thousand years ago, they portrayed their history and culture in a series of rock carvings.
The national flag of the Sakha Republic was raised over the State Assembly building in 1992. It is a rectangle with, from top to bottom, four horizontal blue, white, red and green stripes. In the centre of the blue stripe is a white circle. The colours reflect the geographic and climatic characteristics as well as the historical and cultural traditions of the republic. The white circle in the blue stripe represents the white sun in the Arctic sky. This is a symbol of continuity through the generations and is an expression of respect to ancestors; the Sakha are thought to be the people of the 'white sun' in the heavens. The white stripe below, in combination with the white circle on the blue background, expresses the simple beauty of the north and the purity of its people. The red stripe is a symbol of vital energy. It is also a symbol of the beauty of the motherland and the faithfulness of her people to her. The green stripe represents the short, hot summer and the expanses of the taiga, where the colour green predominates. It is a symbol of fertility and renewal.
The combination of white, red and green has always been typical of Sakha applied art. The combination of blue, white and red corresponds to the colours of the Russian Federation State Flag and shows that the Sakha Republic is a part of the federation.
The Sakha Republic law On State Symbols of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), of July 15th, 2004 adopted the national anthem. It was first performed on September 27th, 2004, at a meeting devoted to the Sakha Republic Independence Day in Yakutsk. The lyrics are by Sakha poets Savva Tarasov and Mikhail Timofeyev and the music is by Kirill Gerasimov.